The intestinal microbiota is an ecosystem that never ceases to amaze and whose role is decisive for our health. Complex, home to thousands of species and microbial strains, it has been the subject of extensive research for several years. Numerous scientific studies have pointed out that there is a link between the diversity of strains of bacteria present there and certain health parameters, in particular cardiovascular and metabolic.
The proper functioning of our microbiote intestinal has an impact on our general health, physique and psychological. Understand how the architecture of microbiote and the function of bacteria who inhabit it influence the organism has become an essential area of research in recent years. In this context, researchers from Inserm and the University of Paris, in collaboration with teams from Inrae,Imperial College in London and the University of Copenhagen in Denmark have shown that a metabolite from intestinal bacteria, hippurate, is associated with the diversity of microbiote. It would play an important role for our cardiovascular and metabolic health, in particular by participating in the regulation of blood sugar. These works appeared in review Gut.
The team led by Inserm researcher Dominique Gauguier focused on hippurate, a metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria found in the urine. Scientists have combined two methods, sequencing ADN (you analyze genetic profile) bacteria from the gut microbiota and urinary metabolomic profiling (analysis of small metabolites present in the urine), in 271 people of a cohort Danish – the MetaHIT study.
From the data obtained, the scientists show that high levels of hippurate in the urine are associated with a greater diversity of the intestinal flora and an increase in wealth in Genoa of the microbiota, which are two parameters protectors cardiometabolic risk (risk of developing cardiovascular illnesses or diabetes).
The potential role of the hippurate
The researchers also had information on the participants’ eating habits, as well as their body mass index (BMI). They found that in obese people with food high in saturated fat, and a risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic problems, high levels of hippurate had beneficial effects on weight and on health metabolic.
These results were supplemented by a validation study in obese mice fed a fatty diet. In these animal models, administration of hippurate improved blood sugar control and stimulated blood sugar levels. secretion d’insulin. « This work confirms the importance of the architecture and the function of the intestinal flora in human health, by demonstrating the beneficial role of a metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria, as we had already demonstrated previously with another metabolite, cresol », Emphasizes Dominique Gauguier. The interest of these results is both diagnostic, hippurate being able to be considered as a biomarker of the diversity of the microbiota, but also therapeutic.
Indeed, one could for example consider modifying the microbiota with systems probiotics producing more intestinal bacteria that synthesize the precursors of hippurate. This would then increase the levels of hippurate with protective effects on the cardiometabolic risk. For the researchers, the next step would be to continue this work by studying the cellular mechanisms that explain how hippurate promotes the secretion of insulin and the regulation of blood sugar.